Although first handball championship in Serbia was organized in 1948, different form of the sport (hazena) was famous two decades earlier. For ten years two sports existed parallel as the sports were called large and small handball. Hazena stopped being popular in 1958.

In the meantime Handball association was founded in 1949 and first men and women national handball championship began in 1954.

Golden years of Serbian and Yugoslav handball were in the mid 80s. That was the time when the “Metaloplastika” from the city of Šabac played European Champions Cup three consecutive times, from 1984 until 1986, two of which they won. In the same time, both men and women national teams won the Olympics in 1984, and the men national team also won gold at the World Championship in 1986.

Serbia had the privilege to organize two major competitions in only two years. First, in 2012 European Championship for men, where Serbia took their last medal (silver), and in 2013 World Championship for women.